In case of significant bone lesion or loss, human tissue graft and autotransplants are the most frequent solutions. However, pain, infection and inflammation, as well as the quantity of available bone limit the effectiveness of those solutions.
Therefore, for the past 15 years, the research community has worked on developing substitute bone materials ex vivo by using scaffolds or substrates together with cells (from various origins in order to maximize cell proliferation and differentiation) and/or biologically active molecules. The resulting biomaterial will have to allow for the retention and viability of the cells right where they are implanted, the growth of blood vessels and osteogenic differentiation
Silicate-substituted calcium phosphate + MSC ± EC subcutaneous and intramuscular insertion in nude mice
Implantation sous-cutanée et intramusculaire chez la souris nude
Human mesenchymal stem cells were loaded into a a silicate-substituted calcium phosphate (SiCaP) scaffold and then ectopically implanted in immune-depressed mice. We observed bone formation and osteoids composed of host cells. The addition of endothelial cells (EC) in the scaffolds did not stimulate blood vessel ingrowth and resulted in a lower level of osteogenesis.
We have demonstrated the capacity of this biomaterial to increase the viability of the transplanted cells (MSC and EC) and to stimulate blood vessel ingrowth (subcutaneous insertion in immunosuppressed mice/ re 3) and to rebuild bone (bone lesion repair, rat cleft plate model).
Poly-caprolactone/hydroxyapatite electrospun honeycomb scaffold associated with mesenchymal stem cells inserted in a rat calvarial defect model.
We have demonstrated, in vivo, the osteo-conduction and osteo-induction properties of the scaffolds. The scaffolds promote bone regeneration and the addition of mesenchymal stem cells further increase bone formation and mineral density.